Thermodynamic System and its Types

Thermodynamic System and its Types

A thermodynamic system (or simply ‘system’) is a definite macroscopic region or space in the universe, in which one or more thermodynamic processes take place. Everything external to a thermodynamic system is called surroundings. System and surroundings are separated by a definite border called boundary. System, surroundings and boundary constitute the universe. See the image [...]

Drawing (Metalworking)

Drawing (Metalworking)

Drawing is a metalworking operation in which the diameter or thickness of a metal is reduced using tensile forces. Drawing can be done on both cylindrical metals and sheet metals. In a cylindrical workpiece, drawing is used to reduce the diameter. In sheet metal, it is used to reduce thickness. In drawing, the metallic workpiece [...]

Gas Laws

Gas Laws

Gas laws are laws that explain the behaviour of an ideal gas. The following are some of the important gas laws: Boyle’s law Charles’ law Amontons’ law Joule’s law of internal energy Regnault’s law Avogadro’s law 1. Boyle’s Law: Boyle’s law states that the volume of a given mass of gas (V) is inversely proportional [...]

Derivation of air-standard efficiency of Otto Cycle

Derivation of air-standard efficiency of Otto Cycle

In my previous article, I gave a short introduction to Otto cycle and discussed the processes in it. In this article, I will derive the air-standard efficiency of Otto cycle. p-V and T-s Diagrams of Otto Cycle: p-V Diagram T-s Diagram Basic terms used in derivation of air-standard efficiency of Otto cycle: Total Cylinder Volume: [...]

Mechanical Properties of a Metal

Mechanical Properties of a Metal

Mechanical properties are properties that are associated with the ability of a metal to resist loads. They heavily influence the characteristics of a metal. The following are some of the important mechanical properties of a metal: Elasticity Plasticity Ductility Toughness Malleability Strength Stiffness Creep Resilience Hardness Elasticity: Whenever an external force is applied on a [...]

Machine Design - An Introduction

Machine Design – An Introduction

Machine design is defined as the use of imagination, scientific principles and engineering techniques to create a machine or structure economically, in order to satisfy the requirements of a customer. Machine design is the first step involved in creation of a machine. It gives the basic idea of how a machine will look and function. [...]